About 28,000 pillboxes and similar fortifications were built in England in 1940 in preparation for an anticipated invasion. About 6,500 remain; one of them in Beachamwell, north of Walters Cottages (Map Ref TF 7444 0660). A good view can be had walking along Long Drove, aka Searchlight Drove.
It is a standard type 22 pillbox, built using brick shuttering and concrete, and part of the perimeter defence of the Royal Air Force airfield at Marham. The neighbouring parish of Barton Bendish has two similar pillboxes, quite close together, and presumably also part of the Marham airfield defences. The hexagonal structures has loopholes for use by riflemen in five of the walls, and a door in the sixth wall , in this case with small loopholes on each side of the doorway.
The Norfolk Heritage Explorer lists the pillbox here . Mistakenly they describe it as octagonal. However they do point out that the 1946 RAF aerial survey shows the pillbox as part of an almost destroyed complex of small circular structures, probably a searchlight battery, with associated huts. The photograph in question can be seen on the Norfolk Historic Maps website.
According to a document in the Norfolk Record Office in 1949 Norfolk County Council Planning Department considered the future of the pillbox and recommended that “this defence work be place in Category ‘B’ on amenity grounds”. It is not known what this signifies but the pillbox is still standing.
I wonder how many sons or daughters of Norfolk have been laid to rest in Westminster Abbey? None come readily to mind[*], and so it is all the more remarkable that the small village of Beachamwell can claim this honour for one of its own.
Although a figure of some standing in ecclesiastical circles during the first quarter of the 18th century, the Reverend Benjamin Ibbot is now largely forgotten. He was born in Beachamwell in 1680, the son of Thomas Ibbot, vicar of Swaffham and rector of Beachamwell. Like his father Benjamin also became a clergyman. He gained his BA at Cambridge University in 1699; was made scholar of Corpus Christi College in 1700 and graduated MA in 1703. He soon obtained a position with Thomas Tenison, Archbishop of Canterbury at the time, first as librarian, and subsequently Cambridge chaplain. In 1707 he was installed as Treasurer at Wells Cathedral.
"an ingenious and learned writer, and a judicious and useful preacher" Chalmers Biographical Dictionary
In 1714 Benjamin Ibbot married Susanne Powell at the parish church of St Martin Outwich in the City of London. Two years later George I appointed him to be one of his chaplains and then in 1717 by Royal Mandate created him Doctor of Divinity. Further clerical appointments followed: assistant preacher at St James’s Piccadilly, rector of St Paul’s Shadwell and prebendary of the collegiate church of St Peter Westminster. In 1724 he retired to Camberwell suffering poor health “impaired by the fatigue of constant preaching to very numerous congregations.” He died there on April 5, 1725, and was buried in Westminster Abbey on 13 April in the east side of the south transept. Unfortunately he has no monument and his gravestone never had an inscription. Benjamin Ibbot had no children. He left all his worldly goods to his wife who died aged 78 in 1764 and was buried at Broxbourne in Hertfordshire.
After his death a selection of his writings was published for the financial benefit of his widow: Thirty Discourses on Practical Subjects.
Also the 16 sermons he preached for the Boyle Lectures in 1714 and 1715 appeared in book form. Robert Boyle founded these lectures to serve as a public forum in which to consider the relationship between Christianity and the new natural philosophy (in other words ‘science’) then emerging in European society. Benjamin Ibbot’s contributions were entitled On the Exercise of Private Judgment, or Free-Thinking. During his lifetime Ibbot had published a translation of Samuel Pufendorf’s De habitu religionis Christianae ad vitam civilem an important work in the development of natural law, tolerance and religious freedom. In a different vein he was also a writer of poetry. His poem A Fit of the the Spleen– in imitation of Shakespear appeared in the best selling poetry anthology of the 18th century: A Collection of Poems by Several Hands; edited by Robert Dodsley. However Ibbot’s pleasure at inclusion might have been soured by the satirical lines added to his effort by Alexander Pope.
Read A Fit of the Spleen
[*]Sir Cloudesley Shovell, born in Cockthorpe Norfolk, was a naval commander and ultimately Admiral of the Fleet. He drowned, together with all 800 men on board, when his flagship wrecked off the Isles of Scilly in 1707. Lurid tales are told about the fate of his body. He is buried in Westminster Abbey and commemorated by an impressive memorial by Grinling Gibbons.
The General Biographical Dictionary; compiled by Alexander Chalmers. 1761 and several subsequent editions. Available at Google Books
Parish Registers are a vital source for family historians, providing the facts of names and dates for milestone events in our ancestors’ lives. However they can also offer the local historian a wider view of the times they record. The following is a transcript of burials on one page of the Parish Registers for Shingham:
♦ Mary, daughter of Robert & Catherine Reader, buried 28th January 1767 [Robert & Catherine were married in 1762 and so presumably their daughter was aged under 5 years].
♦ A poor travelling woman, found dead after the snow, name unknown, buried 10th February 1767
♦ Thomas Towler, his wife Mary, late Bird, buried 24th December 1778
♦ Hannah & William Towler, children of the said Thomas & Mary, buried January 8th 1779
♦ A poor man, found dead in an outhouse, name unknown, buried December 1784
♦ An infant the child of Anne Bone named & buried the [date missing]
♦ Thomas, an infant, the Child of Anne Bone, buried 25th October 1785
♦ Charles Constable, married man aged 60 was buried 4th March 1789
♦ Ann Dalton Davy, Illegitimate aged 4 weeks buried April 11th, a Pauper
♦ Sarah Davy Mother of this infant buried April 14th aged 17, a Pauper
♦ Henry Rudling, son of Richard and Ann Rudling, aged 2 years buried March the 7th 1790
This extract is a wretched catalogue of poverty and child death. It is difficult to imagine Christmas 1778 for the Towler family: both parents buried on Christmas Eve, and two of their children a few days later.
Not many old gravestones remain today in Shingham churchyard. The unfortunates listed above would have had no substantial markers for their final resting place.
The Parish Registers for Shingham 1708 – 1837 have been transcribed and published by the Norfolk & Norwich Genealogical Society.
New project with an impressive programme of free events
The Forestry Commission has been awarded £610 000 by the Heritage Lottery Fund for a project at High Lodge, Santon Downham to make a new trail into Thetford Forest which will link and interpret its landscape history, wildlife and forest management.
The 4.2km all-ability trail will make the forest and its heritage more accessible for everyone as it will have a smooth surface suitable for families, less experienced cyclists and those with access limitations. Benches and shelters will give ‘rest places’ and meet the needs of those with restricted health and mobility.
During the two-year project, there will be opportunities for everyone to explore and research the history of the landscape, take part in archaeological surveys and investigations and learn new heritage skills. There will be training to carry out wildlife surveys; to help produce activities for schools and families and to contribute to interpretation. All are free to participants and those who have booked a place will not have to pay the site entry charge.
If you are interested in this project and would like to be involved or book a place for any of the activities, please email email@example.com or telephone 0300 067 4556 or write to Project Manager, High Lodge Heritage Project, Forest District Office, Santon Downham, Brandon, Suffolk IP27 0TJ.
It is difficult to hide the fact that the Beachamwell Local History Group has been essentially dormant so far in 2017. However we are planning to become more active again in the near future and we are currently organising a programme of talks and events, starting with a talk on Oxborough Hall in November and with more events to follow in 2018. Details will appear here soon.
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For interest, a couple of images from our archive:
A wealth of archaeological finds has been discovered in Breckland. Just in Beachamwell itself we saw at last year’s Local History Open Day the range of items found in gardens or fields in and around our village. Artefacts on display stretched from the recent past as far back as the Palaeolithic.
But would you recognise the pin of a Roman brooch or an Anglo-Saxon loom weight if you found one? Can you tell the difference between Mesolithic and Neolithic flint tools? A forthcoming training day at Gressenhall should help answer these and many other similar questions. Organised by Breaking New Ground and delivered by staff from the Norfolk County Council Historic Environment Service, the day will teach you what to look out for and where to go for further advice and help with identification. In addition a flint knapper will be on hand to demonstrate how stone tools were made.
For an idea of the kinds of archaeological finds that have already been discovered locally visit the Portable Antiquities Scheme website at finds.org.uk and search for Beachamwell. The Portable Antiquities Scheme is a DCMS funded project to encourage the voluntary recording of archaeological objects found by members of the public in England and Wales. Every year many thousands of objects are discovered throughout the UK, many of these by metal-detector users, but also by people whilst out walking, gardening or going about their daily work. This site also offers useful advice on the identification of finds.
After watching Tony Robinson’s recent TV programme about the Icknield Way, I turned to my copy of Shirley Toulson’s East Anglia: walking the ley lines and ancient tracks to see if I could find out more about the Icknield Way in Norfolk.
The Icknield Way claims to be the oldest road in Britain – ‘old when the Romans came’ – and runs from Norfolk to the Dorset coast. The derivation of the name is generally considered unknown, although some (and it seems plausible to me) say it may take its name from the Iceni tribe and it is true that it connects the Iceni base in East Anglia to other parts of Britain.
In many places the route is not particularly well-defined and various alternatives are claimed. In Norfolk several places have been suggested as its terminus including Caistor-by-Norwich (site of Venta Icenorum, Roman town and capital of the Iceni) , Yarmouth and Hunstanton. Evidence for the latter comes from the 13th century road names at Dersingham: Ykenildestrethe and Ikelynge which were identified by W G Clarke in In Breckland Wilds. And this western route was the one chosen by Tony Robinson’s programme. The interest for Beachamwell is that this route is claimed to pass through the parish along what are now Bridleways 3 and 18. The Connecting Threads project on footpaths in Beachamwell researched this and you can read more at:
Returning to Shirley Toulson’s book we find that she chooses to refer to the local section of the Icknield Way as the Puddingstone Track. The route of the Puddingstone Track (and its name) was suggested by Dr. Ernest Rudge during the 1940s and 50s. He thought that it was the remnant of a route used by flint traders in the late Palaeolithic period, stretching all the way from Norfolk to Stonehenge. According to him the route was marked out by a succession of marker stones consisting of a type of ‘puddingstone’ or conglomerate rock. This distinctive rock is a conglomerate sedimentary rock composed of rounded flint pebbles cemented together by a younger matrix of silica quartz.
It is largely confined to the county of Hertfordshire, which, as we shall see, causes some problems for Rudge’s claims.
In Norfolk Rudge identified a series of stones marking the track south of Heacham. Unfortunately Toulson reports that she was unable to find most of these when writing her book (published 1979). One stone she did find was the Cowell Stone which lies on the boundary of Beachamwell parish at its north-west corner, at the side of Bridleway 3 where it crosses the A1122. The problem for Rudge’s thesis is that the Cowell Stone is not conglomerate rock. Continuing south there is another stone at Drymere. This was moved (in the 1970s?) from a position on nearby Forestry land to its current position at the side of the road, just to the east of BR3 – the putative Icknield Way or Puddingstone Track.
But once again this is not conglomerate rock but another glacial erratic (sandstone?). The next stone mentioned by Rudge is further south at Cranwich. No individual stone has been found here, although Toulson notes that the base of the round church tower is decorated with a ring of gritty carrstone which Rudge may have claimed as puddingstone.
Thus it seems that the puddingstone theory doesn’t come to much. Apart for the lack of puddingstones, there are many glacial erratics and similar rocks around and some are bound to be on any route you choose. (Compare with the ley line fallacy which is amusingly debunked by Tom Scott on his Magical Mystery Ley Line Locator.) But whatever we call it and however the route was established and marked, it seems likely that our ancestors have been walking through Beachamwell en route to distant places for several thousand years.
The next History Day, a free public event organised by the Institute for Historical Research, Senate House Library and the Committee of London Research Libraries in History, takes place on 15 November, 10:00-16:00 at Senate House, University of London.
Although the panel sessions are probably aimed at academics, the day includes an open history fair showcasing libraries, archives and organisations offering individual advice for your research projects.
More information on this event, including booking your free ticket, available here
Friday the 1st of July sees the Centenary of the start of the Battle of the Somme. Services of Remembrance are being held in this country and France.
In France the main service of Remembrance will be held at the Thiepval Memorial. This memorial holds the names of over 72,000 men who have no known grave, but fought on the Somme. Two of the names on the memorial are those of young men from Beachamwell, they are:-
Jacob Butters, aged 23 years, died on or since 27.07.1916
Albert Burrell aged 22 years, died on or since 12.10.1916.
Both were volunteers. They have no known grave, but are remembered on the Memorial. The dates are the last dates on which they were seen alive and this is the information given on the official Soldiers Effects documentation. Perhaps that was the date they went ‘over the top’, or were hit by a shell, we do not know. What we do know is that the Somme offensive went on into November, during which time well over a 1,000,000 men, British, French and German either died, were wounded or were Missing in Action.
We will remember them and the sacrifice they made for their fellow man.
Landscape historians at UEA are embarking on a project which will explore the changing landscape of the Brecks in the period c.1700-1930. Many parishes experienced dramatic change during this time as heathland commons were replaced by enclosed fields and plantations. The project will seek to chart these changes and record the stories behind them, drawing together existing research and presenting the findings through a new project website. Topics to be explored include:
How successful was heathland enclosure?
To what extent did traditional agricultural practices continue?
What impact did game management have on the landscape?
How significant was the role of particular landowners and estates?
How did tree planting develop before the Forestry Commission took charge in the 20th century?
A number of workshops and day schools are planned which will provide opportunities to find out more about researching the changing post-medieval landscape, with a particular emphasis on contemporary maps and documents.
The project leaders are keen for volunteers and local groups to get involved with the project by carrying out research, sharing existing knowledge and contributing to the project website. They emphasise that the level of involvement is very flexible. If you would like to learn more, and how to get involved, please contact Dr Jon Gregory firstname.lastname@example.org
This is part of a wider HLF-funded project, Breaking New Ground, which encompasses a range of activities and events across the Brecks in Norfolk and Suffolk. You can find out more on the project website – Breaking New Ground